Tyre construction

TYRE CONSTRUCTION TYPE

With regard to the carcass type, tyres can be divided in the following categories:

-       Diagonal tyres – with the longest tradition and most spread in the market. The carcass of a diagonal tyre is composed of two or more textile cord layers (rayon, nylon, polyester), which are crossed at certain angles. Diagonal tyres are the right choice for smaller motorcycles with a lower cubic capacity, scooters and older motorcycles whose chassis is adapted to diagonal tyres.

-       Diagonal belted tyres are actually diagonal tyres with a reinforced diagonal belt under the tread surface. These tyres are designated with the B letter (diagonal belted tyres), e.g. 130/90B15. These tyres are ideal for higher cubic capacity motorcycles whose chassis is not adapted to radial tyres and demand for stronger tyres.

-       Radial tyres – have a carcass with a cord layer placed at a 90°angle in driving direction. To stabilise the tyre tread surface, the reinforcement cord belts are placed over the carcass. Radial tyres are the right choice for motorcycles with higher cubic capacity since they have to transmit strong forces onto the road, which develop at accelerating, braking and cornering. Radial tyres have many benefits, the most important one being the ability to reach high speeds. Due to a centrifugal force, the temperature in the tyre increases, which can damage the tyre, aggravate the road grip and increase tread wear. The radial construction eliminated almost all disadvantages of diagonal tyres. The behaviour of a tyre in limiting conditions is better predictable.

-       Radial MSB tyres are suitable for very strong and fast motorcycles. MSB – an endless strip is wound under the tyre tread surface in rotational direction and stabilises the tread surface in all driving conditions.

TYRE PARTS

-       Ever since the construction of the first motorcycle, a hundred years ago, special tyres for motorcycles have been designed. The development of tyres has been remarkable through the decades. We have several types of tyres available, which differ according to their basic construction as well as their appearance. The appearance and the construction depend on the motorcycle type. Irrespective of the fact whether it is about scooter, enduro or road tyres, they all have the following parts in common:

-       Tyre tread – the upper tyre part, which contacts the road surface. Tyre tread pattern and rubber compound ensure a grip on the road or off-road as well as water drainage from the tyre. The grip depends on the rubber compound. As a rule, the tyre made from a softer compound has a better grip and a shorter service life, whereas the tyre made from a harder compound has a worse grip and a longer service life.

-       Sidewall – it includes all the important data: speed symbol, load index, name of the tyre, manufacturer, country of origin, the ECE homologation number and others. During the ride, the sidewall transmits lateral forces, throttles oscillations and prevents tyre deformations.

-       Carcass (armature) – is the carrying part of the tyre, it ensures its shape regardless the forces developing during the ride. It can be made of two or more cord layers. Cord can be made of rayon, nylon, polyester or Kevlar, individual parts of the carcass can be steel-reinforced.

-       Tyre bead – provides a close connection with the rim and prevents the tyre on the rim to move. It is made from a wire bead and layers of rubberised cord wrapped around the wire bead. In this way, the tyre wins a required rigidity in the bead area, controls accelerating and braking forces and transmits them onto the suspension. In the case of tubeless tyres, the tyre bead prevents a loss in inflation pressure.

BASIC EXPRESSIONS

M/C – tyres for motorcycles for mounting on the rims of motorcycles whose tyre bead seat diameter differs from the rims having the same designation but are used for passenger or commercial /delivery vehicles.

MOPED – tyres constructed for motorcycles which achieve the speed of 50 km/h or less.

MST- tyres for special purpose motorcycles with a wider tyre tread than comparable dimensions with the same designation.

NHS – tyres for motorcycles designed for the off-road rides. Their use on public road surfaces is not allowed.

M+S – tyres designed for the use in mud and snow (winter tyres).

PR – designates various versions (load index/inflation pressure) of tyres having the same dimension designation.

REINF – motorcycle tyres for load and inflation pressures exceeding the standard values.

TUBELESS – tyres which are specially designed for tubeless mounting on suitable rims.

TUBETYPE – tyres specially designed for mounting with a tube.

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